The benefits humans enjoy directly from nature, supporting life as we know it, including the human species. Example: timber from forests, clean drinking water, buffering of floods by wetlands, aesthetics and spiritual value of nature.
The study of knowledge, i.e., what it is, how it is acquired, and to what extent it can be known. This field is relevant to interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary team science, as each scholarly discipline has its own epistemology that influences what questions are posed, what methods are used, and how scholars conduct their research. Building bridges across different epistemologies is a key process occurring daily at SESYNC as scholars work together to solve difficult problems.