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SESYNC
The National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) is dedicated to accelerating scientific discovery at the interface of human and ecological systems. We support new interdisciplinary collaborations that pursue data-driven solutions to pressing socio-environmental problems. SESYNC features a range of services from project inception through results dissemination, including supporting the team science process, meeting planning and facilitation, travel and logistical support, and cyberinfrastructure resources. SESYNC is funded by an award to the University of Maryland from the National Science Foundation. Learn more about SESYNC.

Team Science

Postdoctoral fellowship to research the practices and processes of interdisciplinary team science when applied to socio-environmental research

The Writer’s Job is to Make the Reader’s Job Easy

May 27, 2015

by PAUL LAGASSE
Guest Contributor

Dr. Josh Schimel is a Professor of Ecosystem Ecology in the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology at the University of California, Santa Barbara and the author of Writing Science: How to Write Papers That Get Cited and Proposals That Get Funded (Oxford University Press, 2011). Recently, Josh led a two-day writing workshop at the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) for the center’s postdoctoral fellows. I sat down with Josh after the workshop to discuss what scientists, particularly those who work in interdisciplinary fields, need to know about writing well.

Paul Lagasse: At the beginning of your book, you have a quote: “As a scientist, you are a professional writer.” You then go on to say that being a professional writer is not enough; you also need to write something that’s “sticky,” that grabs people. Can you say more about what you mean by that?

Josh Schimel: Part of being a professional writer is thinking about your writing as more than just filling in the boxes of an IMRAD structure. It’s the writer’s job to make the reader’s job easy. You need to think about the reader and how they’re going to respond to your work. Scientists are not trying to be literary when we write for our peers, but I argue that we should be using literary tools to do a better job of writing science.

PL: Do scientists who conduct interdisciplinary research face unique challenges in terms of their writing compared with those who write for someone in a single discipline?

JS: In science, we often borrow words from other fields and assign different meanings to them. Take the term “resilience,” for example. To an engineer, it means the ability to return to a stable state following a single perturbation, whereas ecologists use it to mean the ability to absorb constant disturbances without changing fundamental processes.

But nature doesn’t do disciplines; humans create them to simplify how we think about and address questions and problems. We need to recognize that scientists in different disciplines may both be working on the same issue, although they may have defined it differently. The writer’s role is to craft language so that whoever’s reading it can see that and recognize both sides.

PL: Do you see self-publishing as the future of science scholarship, and if so, what would that mean for peer review? When you’re dealing with an interdisciplinary topic, I imagine that finding a suitable journal might be more of a challenge.

JS: Some people in the sciences have been arguing about why we even need journals anymore. But I think that writers need someone to help with editing and quality control, and to put an imprimatur on what’s worth paying attention to. Many people tend to think that the purpose of peer review is just to filter out the garbage, but it also polishes the not-garbage. It provides critical outside input that really helps make the science better.

PL: The role of peer review, in that sense, becomes analogous to the role of the editor in fiction. But a lot of fiction authors have a reluctant relationship with their editors; is it the same in the sciences?

JS: Absolutely! It’s a love–hate relationship, and a negotiation.

PL: In your book, you mention the distinction between rules and principles. Can you tell me about how you perceive the difference?

JS: I argue that principles are fundamental concepts that, if you violate them, your writing will suffer. The most important principle is to write with clarity and energy. Now, there are many rules of grammar that can be applied to modulate clarity and energy, some of which are useful and some of which are kind of marginal—such as never starting a sentence with “and,” “but,” or “however.”

That said, no rule in the English language was created just to be evil. They all have their uses, and sometimes, breaking those rules have their uses, too. If you break a rule well, people won’t notice that you did the very thing that they said not to. Writing well is its own kind of science, because it takes practice and effort. It’s also its own kind of art, because your reader should never be aware of the effort behind it—only the message that it carries.

Note: parts of this interview have been edited for readability and clarity.

The National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, funded through an award to the University of Maryland from the National Science Foundation, is a research center dedicated to accelerating scientific discovery at the interface of human and ecological systems. Visit us online at www.sesync.org and follow us on Twitter @SESYNC.

Top image courtesy Eric Heupel via Flickr/Creative Commons.

Climate Change Debate Fueled by ‘Echo Chambers,’ New Study Finds

Photo courtesy Daniel Mennerich via Flickr/Creative Commons

College Park, Md and Annapolis, Md — A new study from researchers at the University of Maryland (UMD) and the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) demonstrates that the highly contentious debate on climate change is fueled in part by how information flows throughout policy networks.

Blue Angels in Annapolis

May 20, 2015

The National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) is located just one mile from the United States Naval Academy. On May 19 and 20, SESYNC staff were able to enjoy flights by the Blue Angels (the Navy’s flight demonstration squadron), from both the Naval yard and our office building's rooftop, as part of the Academy's commissioning week.

All photos courtesy Melissa Andreychek, SESYNC communications coordinator.

Associated SESYNC Researcher(s): 
Audience: 

Trade-Dependent Countries at Risk?

May 14, 2015

 

Above figure: Map displaying the geographic distribution of countries belonging to the four groups described by Suweis et al. in PNAS.

by MELISSA ANDREYCHEK
Communications Coordinator

Twenty four percent of all food produced in the world is traded across international boundaries. Increasingly interconnected food networks shuffle soybeans from Brazil to China; fish from China to the United States; and corn from the U.S. to Japan.

As countries become increasingly dependent on an increasingly globalized food trade, local pressures can give way to socio-economic and socio-environmental impacts felt around the globe. Changes in policy or extreme environmental conditions in one country can affect the food security of another thousands of miles away.

But just how vulnerable are we?

New research published this week in the online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences indicates how the relationship between global population and food supply is becoming more and more sensitive to demographic and environmental fluctuations. At particular risk are nations where land and water resources are scarce and, as a result, food security—typically defined as sufficient access to safe and nutritious food that meets the dietary needs of a population—is reliant on imports. Such interdependence could lead to instabilities with possible catastrophic consequences: escalated food prices, increased poverty and hunger, social unrest.

“We’re in a new era in that global trade gives us access to food produced halfway around the world, which we can import to help cope with shocks to local agricultural systems. But at the same time, international trade networks expose us to the local shocks of other regions that can propagate into global crises,” said Paolo D’Odorico, sabbatical fellow at the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) and one of the study’s authors.

The study—co-authored by members of a SESYNC synthesis group—evaluates the food security of more than 140 nations with populations greater than one million. The researchers say their findings indicate how, through international trade and fluctuations in supply-and-demand, the global food system is losing resilience and becoming increasingly susceptible to crises. Using global population, food production, and trade data in conjunction with complex network analysis, they mapped hotspots of food insecurity.

“This is the first time someone has attempted to mathematically quantify the level of resilience of the global food system—specifically, how likely a country’s food supply is to absorb or recover from shocks,” said Samir Suweis, postdoctoral researcher at the University of Padova and lead author of the study.

The authors categorized each country into one of four groups:

[A] Exporting countries in which population growth is driven by domestic resources—including the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Argentina.

[B] Trade-dependent countries that cannot sustain their population without importing food—including Japan, Jordan, Egypt, and Algeria.

[C] Countries in which trade does not substantially alter food availability or population growth (or vice versa)—including China, Bangladesh, Ecuador, and Germany.

[D] Countries that are in a state of chronic food stress because their populations have grown above levels that could be sustained from both domestic production and trade—including Somalia, Angola, Ethiopia, and Senegal.

The results show that countries in groups B and C are most sensitive to perturbations throughout the food trade network and, therefore, are at the greatest risk of food insecurity. It’s a finding the researchers found surprising: countries in group C, which do trade but are not dependent on imports, are highly vulnerable because of the interconnectedness of the trade system.

D’Odorico and Suweis say that more research is needed to understand these results.

“A possible explanation might be that these countries are presently self-sufficient—but just barely so. They may not have access to sufficient reserve resources to cope with demographic shocks, exposing them to greater potential risk," D’Odorico said.

The study can be accessed online at: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/short/1507366112

The National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, funded through an award to the University of Maryland from the National Science Foundation, is a research center dedicated to accelerating scientific discovery at the interface of human and ecological systems. Visit us online at www.sesync.org and follow us on Twitter @SESYNC.

Associated Project: 

Restoration

Ecological restoration must be held to more robust standards, says interdisciplinary team of scholars

Restoring Degraded Coasts with Living Shorelines

April 21, 2015

by ASHLEY TAYLOR
Communications Assistant

Imagine you’re visiting your grandparents’ oceanfront home for the first time since you were young. You take a careful seat on the water’s edge, your nostalgia interrupted by the sharp, unfamiliar rocks lining the shore. You’ve changed since your last visit—and so, it seems, has the landscape.

Many coastal regions have experienced similar transitions as a result of growing populations and accompanying economic development. Biscayne Bay, Florida is one such region. The area’s natural beauty has attracted more and more residents and visitors, which spurred the rapid urbanization of Miami and the surrounding area in the 20th century. The flood of people ushered in a slew of environmental impacts such as pollution, loss of habitat, and shoreline erosion over time. Although these impacts aren’t unique to this area, the threat they pose to the region’s natural resources are cause for concern.

Mangrove forests, known for their dense tangle of prop roots, are native to Biscayne Bay. The root systems trap and filter out sediment, making mangroves important for both coastline protection and providing habitat to a wide variety of aquatic life and shoreline birds. These unique habitats have in many places been degraded or destroyed by urban development. Restoration efforts have included living shoreline techniques (i.e., supplementing hard structures such as sea walls and retaining walls with mangrove trees) to stabilize the shoreline and to provide an environment for wildlife to utilize.

A study recently published in the peer-reviewed Bulletin of Marine Science by Joseph Peters of Portland State University, Lauren Yeager of the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC), and Craig Layman of North Carolina State University analyzed the ecological impacts of riprap installation (i.e., rock or other material used to armor shorelines against erosion) combined with mangrove plantings. They were specifically interested in the differences of fish assemblages between artificial riprap mangroves and natural mangroves in northern Biscayne Bay. The researchers found that overall, restored shorelines had the most species-rich fish communities, therefore demonstrating the potential to improve degraded shorelines and successfully support aquatic life.

They did, however, find a caveat. Riprap is not a one-size-fits-all solution.

“There are benefits to planting artificial mangroves—but the mangrove root structure is somewhat changed by the rocky riprap, and as a result the roots cannot perform many of their natural functions,” Peters explained. “We anticipated that there might be a difference in the fishes that utilize the riprap versus natural mangroves. But among certain fish species, it appears that riprap mangrove habitats don’t add any value. We think it’s because the artificial rock–root structure doesn’t provide equal protection for certain fishes against predators as compared to natural mangroves.”

Coastal communities are working to find ways to cope with shoreline degradation, prevent further damage from erosion, and design restoration projects in a sustainable way. Living shorelines are emerging as a preferred restoration method—their environmental benefits are plenty, and they’re often more adaptable to potential impacts associated with climate change. Since 1987, more than $11 million has been spent on coastal habitat restoration and exotic plant removal in Biscayne Bay alone.

Restoration can be expensive. But the economic costs may be a fair trade to prevent the total destruction of coastal shorelines, leaving generations to come without the important ecosystem services they provide. We’re at risk of losing more than our nostalgia—if we don’t look closer into restoration solutions, we’ll have bigger fish to fry.

The National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, funded through an award to the University of Maryland from the National Science Foundation, is a research center dedicated to accelerating scientific discovery at the interface of human and ecological systems. Visit us at www.sesync.org and follow us on Twitter at @SESYNC.

Top image: Riprap mangrove restoration, courtesy Joseph Peters.

Associated SESYNC Researcher(s): 

Simulating Sprawl: What Economists Can Learn from ABMs

April 2, 2015

by MELISSA ANDREYCHEK
Communications Coordinator

Mainstream economics has yet to embrace the potential of agent-based modeling to accelerate our understanding of how humans impact systems. But evidence that this tool is useful for exploring environmental-economic problems is easy to find.

Nicholas Magliocca, a computational research fellow at the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC), uses agent-based models (ABMs) to investigate the dynamics of human–environment interactions and their consequences for environmental and economic sustainability. In a nutshell, that means he uses computers to simulate how individuals behave, and how the interactions of their behaviors lead to large-scale outcomes.

ABMs are critical tools, Dr. Magliocca explains, for researching questions that might be otherwise unethical or impossible to explore. He points to his recent research on how urban development patterns are influenced by economic variables—for example, a home buyer’s income (unethical to manipulate in the real world) and/or preference for lot size (difficult, if not impossible, to manipulate in the real world).

In a paper recently published on the research, Magliocca and his co-authors—Virginia McConnell and Margaret Walls of Resources for the Future—explain that communities across the United States have invested in a variety of programs and policies to combat urban sprawl, which is associated with consequences such as increased air pollution, reduced access to natural areas, and loss of local farmland. But how do communities determine which of these investments are effective? It’s complicated, because the urban development process itself is so complex. Hailing a single policy as a key solution seems inconceivable: there are endless arrays of physical landscapes, consumer preferences, and market fluctuations to consider, after all.

While it may be human impulse to reduce complexity, ABMs embrace it. Magliocca and his colleagues’ model incorporates three types of agents (consumers who purchase houses of various types, a developer, and farmer/landowners who choose between farming and selling their land) and simulates a series of market events (buying land, building houses, setting asking prices). The agents’ decisions are governed by a set of mathematical algorithms—learning rules based on cognitive models so consumers, developers, and landowners can adapt over time, as they would in the real world.

The ability to manipulate the otherwise unethical or impossible reveals why ABMs are so useful. Tweaking the agricultural productivity of a farmer’s land here, or a consumer’s preference for travel/commute time there, results in an entirely different model scenario with entirely different outcomes. The researchers ran the model 150 times in all, with each small change unleashing a slew of varying feedbacks between agents and markets.

The most surprising result? Early development patterns are dictated by agricultural land value—but eventually become dominated by farmers’ land price expectations.

“In a very rural area, the value of land is tied pretty tightly to its agriculture productivity,” Magliocca explained. “All a developer needs to do to buy is determine that value threshold and make a slightly higher offer. But at some point, when and where land is developed is more about farmer’s reactions to changing prices and development patterns rather than some set economic standard.”

“Our model points to the importance of people’s expectations and behaviors,” he added. “It highlights the need to take more than just economic fundamentals into account when designing development policy.”

Although agent-based modeling has been deemed an “uninteresting” or “fringe” approach by many mainstream economists, many others tout it as a tool worth developing. It turns out there are some questions that agent-based modeling can answer that mainstream economics simply cannot on its own.

The research paper, “Exploring sprawl: Results from an economic agent-based model of land and housing markets,” was published online March 25 in the peer-reviewed journal Ecological Economics. It can be accessed for free until May 14, 2015, by clicking here.

The National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, funded through an award to the University of Maryland from the National Science Foundation, is a research center dedicated to accelerating scientific discovery at the interface of human and ecological systems. Visit us at www.sesync.org and follow us on Twitter @SESYNC.

Top image courtesy La-Citta-Vita via Flickr/Creative Commons.

Associated SESYNC Researcher(s): 

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